The outline story of the Peloponnesian War – Task 1
Meanwhile, the Spartans decided to move the war to the Hellespont and cut off the grain supply of Athens. Admiral Mindarus brought the Spartan fleet to the north, but was defeated by the Athenian admirals Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus. When the year 410 started, all Athenian commanders - Alcibiades, Theramenes, Thrasybulus, and Thrasyllus - were in the Hellespont, where they decisively defeated the Spartan navy near . Its admiral Mindarus was killed in action.
Review – History of the Peloponnesian War
The orator returned to Athens, and again tried to organize a panhellenic revolt against Macedonia. For a while, the Greeks were indeed successful, but after a year of war, the Macedonians were ultimately victorious during the battle of Crannon. After this defeat, Demosthenes was condemned again by the Athenians, and committed suicide.
The first year of the Sicilian war was more successful for the invaders than for the defenders. The Athenians created a base in Catana and defeated the Syracusans in battle. Still, they had not won the war yet, and the death of Lamachus, the recall of Alcibiades (who was involved in a religious scandal), and an illness of Nicias created serious problems.
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Sparta recommenced war in 414 BC. Now Sparta had a strong army and navy. Athens had lost all its best sailors and finances were wearing. The Spartan on King Agis orders occupied Decelea so that Athens could not access their silver mines. The Athenian empire started to fall apart due to attack after attack. Persia entered the war to support Sparta. The Athenian navy called back Alcibiades, who had fled to Sparta, to help them.
The food sources of Sicily and Egypt were under the control of Sparta and Egypt. Athens only support was in form of Crimea. The Athenians under Thrasybulus and Thrasylus defeated the Spartans at Cynossema. Athens also enjoyed a naval victory over Persia at Cyzicus at the Sea of Marmora.
Sparta saw a new leadership in the form of Lysander who along with Persian leader Cyrus started to builds a new armada. Alcibiades divided his forces and left one at Notium. But Lysander attacked Notium and Alcibiades could not do anything upon returning as the damage had been done. He was called back to Athens, probably for his trial, and he therefore fled to Hellespont.
Callicratidas was the next leader after Lysander left. He attacked the Athenian harbor of Mitylene. Athens sailed their fleet in the battle of Arginusae where Sparta lost. Callicratidas lost his life due to drowning. Sparta offered peace but Athens refused.
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War was eventually declared in the Autumn 340, when the Macedonian king had laid siege to and and threatened the Athenian food supply. Demosthenes proposed a reform of the taxation system to raise more money for the naval policy, but the war was not to be decided at sea. In August 338, a united army of Athenians and Thebans was defeated at by king Philip and his son . During the next weeks, Demosthenes prepared everything for the siege of Athens, but the Macedonian crown prince came as a negotiator to Athens and offered reasonable peace conditions, which the Athenians accepted.
What Causes War? - ScienceDirect
The next years witnessed a continuation of the war with diplomatic means. Athens and Sparta had concluded a defensive alliance, but on both sides, there were politicians who wanted to resume the war. The Spartans did not return Amphipolis, as they had promised, and the Athenians retaliated by keeping Sphacteria and Pylos.
The cities of Athens and Sparta were bitter rivals in ancient Greece
The Spartans knew how to reply. If it attacked the Athenian allies, Athens would be forced to choose between either its Spartan alliance (which meant abandoning its allies), or its treaty with the three democratic cities (and risking an open war with Sparta in the Peloponnese). As it turned out, Athens preferred the second alternative, and when Spartan king marched to the north, Athens supported the democrats. In 418, a battle was fought at Mantinea, and the Spartan king Agis defeated his enemies ().