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Spillover is a process by which attitudes and behavior carry over from one role to another. Spillover between work and family life can be regarded as negative (i.e., work-family conflict) or positive (work-family enhancement). "These two dimensions of spillover might co-exist to some degree. For example, a job that provides a high degree of negative spillover in the form of long hours and psychological stress carryover into home life, at the same time, could provide a high degree of positive spillover in the form of family financial security and opportunities for personal growth that make for a better family member." (89)
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A meta-analysis of 60 published studies in the United States and Canada showed that employees who have higher job involvement or job stress or spend more time at work have more work interference with their family life than family interference with their work. However, employees who had more schedule flexibility at work experienced less spillover of work stress into the home. (17)
Work-family balance has two dimensions: work interference with family and family interference with work. Characteristics of the job and the workplace can have a positive or negative effect on family life, while aspects of an employee's family situation can affect the employee's performance and attitudes toward work. (Byron, 2005) The availability of a variety of flexible work arrangements can help employees maximize work-family balance, which benefits both the employee and the employer.
WHY EMPLOYEES NEED FLEXIBILITY<
Research shows that flexible work arrangements may reduce stress because employees working flexibly are more satisfied with their jobs, more satisfied with their lives, and experience better work-family balance. (21) Overall, employees who have a high work-life fit fare much better than employees who have moderate or low levels of work-life fit. They are more highly engaged and less likely to look for a new job in the next year, and they enjoy better overall health, better mental health, and lower levels of stress. (40)
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The National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW) conducted by the Families and Work Institute found that employees in more flexible workplaces exhibited less negative spillover between work and family life. This was found to have benefits for both employers and employees.
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A study of managers employed in workplaces in five different countries found that employees working in an environment viewed as more family supportive experienced lower levels of work-family conflict. Reduced work-family conflict was in turn related to greater job and family satisfaction, followed by greater overall life satisfaction. (59)
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Work-life balance refers to the ability of an individual to balance work and non-work responsibilities that may not necessarily include family life. Work-life balance provides an individual with sufficient time, energy, and well-being to engage in activities that promote personal growth and enrichment. Work-life balance has three dimensions: work interference with personal life, personal life interference with work, and work/personal life enhancement.
26/02/2014 · Stress is actually a normal part of life
Studies have shown being unhappy with or unfulfilled by work can take a toll on our health, relationships, and even lifespan. Those in unhealthy work environments tend to gain more weight, have more healthcare appointments, and have higher rates of absenteeism. Stress from work can also impact their family life, mental health, and even increase risks for chronic illnesses and heart attacks.