Lifelong learning in nursing: A Delphi study - …

How to cite this article: Smith, M. K. (1996, 2001) ‘Lifelong learning’, , .

Lifelong Learning | SkillsYouNeed

Knapper, C. K. and Cropley, A. J. (1985) , Beckenham: Croom Helm, reprinted (1989) London: Routledge. 201 + x pages. Examines lifelong learning as a paradigm and system. With chapters on learning processes, methods, evaluation and the significance for higher education institutions.

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Field, J. (2000) , Stoke of Trent: Trentham Books. 181 + xii pages. Extended essay that provides a very accessible discussion of themes and developments. Chapters on lifelong learning; the silent explosion (the development of reflexivity etc.); the learning economy; who is left behind; and the new educational order.

Lengrand, P. (1975) , Beckenham: Croom Helm (first published 1970). 156. Clear introduction to the notion of lifelong learning (with an emphasis on self education) and some of the continuing questions surrounding the idea in practice.

What are some great books for learning critical thinking

Lifelong learning is now a mechanism for exclusion and control. As well as facilitating development it has created new and powerful inequalities. There are issues around access to knowledge; and individualization. In knowledge-based economy, those who have the lowest levels of skill and the weakest capacity for constant updating are lees and less likely to find paid employment. Individualization has also meant that access to social support mechanisms has weakened.

Learning critical thinking is an exercise.

As can be seen from the above, ‘lifelong learning’ is a problematic notion. So is it worth pursuing? Field (2000: ix-xii) provides us with three reasons why we should continue to speak and write about it.


The problem is that the sort of learning concerned is highly individualized and often oriented to employer or consumer interests. There has been little real interest in learning for democracy and community. Where collective advancement is emphasized it is often with regard to maintaining or gaining economic advantage and, in particulat the development of the .


More recently there has been a shift in much of the literature and policy discussions from lifelong education to lifelong learning. There has been an associated tendency to substitute the term adult learning for adult education (Courtney 1979: 19). One of the criticisms made is that in the process little attention has been paid to distinguishing education and learning. One way to approach this is to view learning, as a cognitive process internal to the learner, that can occur ‘both incidentally and in planned educational activities’, while, ‘it is only the planned activities we call.. education’ (Merriam and Brockett 1997: 6).

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Antikainen, A., Houtsonen, J., Huotelin, H. and Kauppila, J. (1996) , London: Routledge. 136 pages. Looks at lifelong learning and the ‘learning society’ in daily life and considers change in relation to contemporary society.