And to those who believe that the Constitution means what it says, ..

He heads the Council of Ministers and is  Deputy Head of the Supreme Defense Council.2.

Defense and the Constitution: ..

He shall safeguard the constitution and Lebanon's independence, unity, and territorial integrity. The President shall preside over the Supreme Defense Council and be the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces which fall under the authority of the Council of Ministers.
(2) The President of the Republic shall be elected by secret ballot and by a twothirds majority of the Chamber of Deputies.

Constitution and the role we each play in providing 'for the common defense'.

Lot Detail - Defense of the Constitution

when it loses the confidence of the Chamber of Deputies based on the Chamber's initiative or based on the Council's initiative to gain the Chamber's confidence.
(2) Ministers are to be dismissed by a Decree signed by the President and the Prime Minister in accordance with Article of the constitution.
(3) When the Council resigns or is considered resigned, the Chamber of Deputies is automatically considered in extraordinary session until a new Council has been formed and has gained the Chamber's confidence.


(1) The Chamber of Deputies has the right to impeach the Prime Minister and Ministers for high treason or for serious neglect of their duties. The Decision to impeach may not be taken except by a majority of two thirds of the total membership of the Chamber.
(2) A special law is to be issued to determine the conditions of the civil responsibility of the Prime Minister and individual Ministers.


The impeached Prime Minister or Minister are tried by the Supreme Council.


A Prime Minister or Minister leaves office as soon as the Decision of impeachment concerning him is issued. If he resigns, his resignation does not prevent judicial proceedings from being instituted or continued against him.




One month at least and two months at most before the expiration of the term of office of the President of the Republic, the Chamber is summoned by its President to elect the newPresident of the Republic. However, should it not be summoned for this purpose, the Chamber meets of its own accord on the tenth day preceding the expiration of the President's term of office.


Should the Presidency become vacant through the death or resignation of the President or for any other cause, the Chamber meets immediately and by virtue of the law to elect a successor. If the Chamber happens to be dissolved at the time the vacancy occurs, the electoral bodies are convened without delay and, as soon as the elections have taken place, the Chamber meets by virtue of the law.


The Chamber meeting to elect the President of the Republic is considered an electoral body and not a legislative assembly. It must proceed immediately, without discussion or any other act, to elect the Head of the State.



The constitution may be revised upon the proposal of the President of the Republic. In such a case the Government submits a draft law to the Chamber of Deputies.


The constitution may also be revised upon the request of the Chamber of Deputies. In this case the following procedures are to be observed:
During an ordinary session and at the request of at least ten of its members, the Chamber of Deputies may recommend, by a majority of two thirds of the total members lawfully composing the Chamber, the revision of the constitution.
However, the articles and the questions referred to in the recommendation must be clearly defined and specified. The President of the Chamber then transmits the recommendation to the Government requesting it to prepare a draft law relating thereto. If the Government approves the recommendation of the Chamber by a majority of two thirds, it must prepare the draft amendment and submit it to the Chamber within four months; it it does not agree, it shall return the Decision to the Chamber for reconsideration. If the Chamber insists upon the necessity of the amendment by a majority of three fourths of the total members lawfully composing the Chamber, the President of the Republic has then either to accede to the Chamber's recommendation or to ask the Council of Ministers to dissolve the Chamber and to hold new elections within three months. If the new Chamber insists on the necessity of amending the constitution, the Government must yield and submit the draft amendment within four months.


When a draft law dealing with a constitutional amendment is submitted to the Chamber, it must confine itself to its discussion before any other work until a final vote is taken. It may discuss and vote only on articles and questions clearly enumerated and defined in the draft submitted to it.


(1) When a draft law dealing with a constitutional amendment is submitted to the Chamber, it cannot discuss it or vote upon it except when a majority of two thirds of the members lawfully composing the Chamber are present. Voting is by the same majority.
(2) The President of the Republic is required to promulgate the law of the constitutional amendment under the same conditions and in the same form as ordinary laws.

Supreme Court, speaks to all Defense Department personnel on Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.

Implied Contract
Short for implied-in-fact contract, it's an agreement that is not explicitly in writing, but presumably intended by all parties involved. A manager's oral promise, a statement in an employee manual, a company policy, a chain of positive employee merit reviews, and a company's customary practices are each examples of what might constitute an implied contract between an employer and employee. (Often, what constitutes an implied contract infers a "promise" of continued or permanent employment.) Several recognize of implied contract as an exception to the . However, employers might require new-hires to sign , in which they acknowledge that documents, such as policy manuals, do not constitute contracts. Additionally, the laws in some states preclude employer policies from automatically constituting contracts. Subsequently, employee claims that implied contracts existed based on policies or documents might be invalid. Compare to .

Constitution and why the Constitution is relevant to us today is fundamental to our being able to defend it.


Speech in Defense of the Ratification of the Constitution ..

“We did not lose a single member of the Self-Defense Forces after the war because we had the Constitution,” Sawachi said. “I think it’s quite egregious that the prime minister decided that SDF members can die defending another country.”

February 2013 – In Defense of the Constitution

Faragher-Ellerth Defense
Also referred to as the Faragher-Ellerth affirmative defense, it's a defense strategy derived from two 1998 Supreme Court cases decided under . It means that an employer may avoid under Federal law, if the employer can prove that it had reasonably implemented prevention and remedy measures and made employees aware of them, but the complaining employee (plaintiff) unreasonably failed to take advantage of the measures or to otherwise avoid harm before taking legal action. Some courts have since extended recognition of the Faragher-Ellerth defense to other types of and cases, such as those involving or discrimination. This employer defense generally doesn't hold water if the harassment culminated in an adverse employment action against the plaintiff, such as a demotion or . Also, simply making employees aware of anti-harassment policies might not be enough for employers to justify this defense.

In Defense of the Constitution ..

Sawachi is also a founding member of the Article 9 Association, which was established in 2004 to protect the war-renouncing clause in the Constitution. But now she senses a gloomy mood prevailing over Japan with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s push to exercise the right to collective self-defense.