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Macular Degeneration is caused by the deterioration of the central portion of the retina, the inside back layer of the eye that records the images we see and sends them via the optic nerve from the eye to the brain. The retina’s central portion, known as the macula, is responsible for focusing central vision in the eye, and it controls our ability to read, drive a car, recognize faces or colors, and see objects in fine detail.
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The nervous system can be divided into the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system connects the brain to the rest of the body. Collectively, the central and peripheral nervous systems allow the body to receive information, process that information and convey commands to the body in response to the initial stimulus. Whether you are looking through binoculars, listening to music, eating a sandwich, smelling flowers or really doing anything, your nervous system is working!
One can compare the human eye to a camera. The macula is the central and most sensitive area of the so-called film. When it is working properly, the macula collects highly detailed images at the center of the field of vision and sends them up the optic nerve to the brain, which interprets them as sight. When the cells of the macula deteriorate, images are not received correctly. In early stages, macular degeneration does not affect vision. Later, if the disease progresses, people experience wavy or blurred vision, and, if the condition continues to worsen, central vision may be completely lost. People with very advanced macular degeneration are considered legally blind. Even so, because the rest of the retina is still working, they retain their peripheral vision, which is not as clear as central vision.