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Edward III sent to Ireland his 22-year-old son, Lionel, who was married to Elizabeth de Burgo, the heiress of Ulster. Lionel was designated the king’s lieutenant in July 1361, and he reached Dublin in September with 1,500 men commanded by the earl of Stafford. He transferred the seat of government to Carlow in order to be able to strike east and west. Robert Holywood of the exchequer was in Carlow by September. Lionel summoned a parliament to meet at Dublin in January 1362, and it granted a subsidy from the clergy and laity. That year Lionel was made the duke of Clarence. In September the O’Conchobairs burned fourteen churches in the Meath. In November 1363 Edward III ordered all of Ireland’s revenue to be used to hire men of Ireland for the war. Lionel led a campaign in Leix and went back to England in April 1364, leaving Ormond as his deputy. Lionel returned in December, and in February 1366 he held a parliament at Kilkenny that codified the laws of Ireland. Marriage between the English and Irish was forbidden, and other laws regulated their relations and customs. Irish living among the English were required to speak English. Games were to be replaced by the practice of archery and the use of lances. The Irish of Tipperary made war in the marches of Limerick, which had to garrison its borders. Lionel of Clarence left Ireland in November 1366.

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Edward II began his reign by recalling his best friend Piers de Gaveston, who was given the earldom of Cornwall on August 6 and married the King’s niece Margaret de Clare. Antony Bek was restored to the see of Durham, and Edward wrote to Pope Clement V asking that Robert Winchelsey be reinstated as archbishop of Canterbury. He dismissed Treasurer Walter Langton and ordered his temporalities seized in September. Edward’s wine-drinking friend Walter Reynolds was appointed treasurer, and William Melton was given custody of the privy seal. The new King called off the Scottish campaign, and he ordered the earl of Richmond and Aymer de Valence, the earl of Pembroke, to keep the peace in the north. The Parliament met at Northampton and granted a fifteenth from the clergy and a fifteenth and a twentieth from the laity. Gaveston won jousts at a tournament in December but made enemies with his arrogant name-calling. After appointing the new earl of Cornwall keeper of the realm, Edward left for France, where he did homage to for Aquitane and Ponthieu and then married his 12-year-old daughter Isabella at Boulogne on January 23, 1308. That month the bishop of Durham and the earls of Lincoln, Warenne, Pembroke, and Hereford and five barons wrote letters patent at Boulogne expressing loyalty to the King but criticizing the oppression of the government. Gaveston ruled England until the King returned, and he was prominent at the coronation on February 25. Edward took the oath in French rather than in Latin.

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Because of Prince Edward’s illness, his brother John of Gaunt became more prominent. In April 1372 the earl of Pembroke became the King’s lieutenant in Aquitane. Duke John IV of Brittany renewed his alliance with England in July. The Parliament that year excluded lawyers and sheriffs. In February 1373 Pope Gregory XI asked for 100,000 florins from the English clergy. In March the earl of Salisbury mustered nearly 5,000 men. Yet the French aided a revolt in Brittany, and John IV fled in April. John of Gaunt led a force to France, but he lost nearly half his men to hunger and disease while marching in the winter to Bordeaux. In April 1375 Edward collected a tenth from the English benefices held by cardinals. In May the English agreed to a truce at Bruges for 53,000 francs. Many believed it was a sell-out, and the English captain Thomas Catterton, who kept some of the money, was accused of treason. The truce would be extended until June 24, 1377. Between 1369 and 1375 England had spent more than £670,000 on the war.

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A great council at Westminster in September approved a tenth and fifteenth for three years. Westminster would be the seat of Parliament and the administration for the next forty years of Edward III’s reign. The King’s annual income was now up to £57,000. However, Edward had promised to pay allies £124,000 by the end of the year. Edward claimed the French crown in October. In February 1338 he was authorized to pre-empt half the wool in England (about 20,000 sacks) if he left the other half to his subjects. Based on this security, Edward could borrow more from the Bardi and the Peruzzi. However, his effort to create a monopoly on the export of wool soon broke down because of smuggling and discounted bonds. Ordinances at Walton in Suffolk made on July 12 established permanent policy. Edward left for Antwerp four days later and learned that only 2,500 sacks had arrived. That summer he borrowed £100,000 from Brabant.

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The Parliament of 1376 refused to vote for a subsidy, and another convened in January 1377 and approved a poll tax. By then Bishop Houghton of St. David’s had become chancellor and Bishop Wakefield of Worcester treasurer. The Commons elected John of Gaunt’s steward, but the magnates insisted on seating the exiled Wykeham. On February 20 a mob in London attacked the residences of Gaunt and Henry Percy, and John got the mayor of London deposed. The spring Parliament quashed the sentences of those impeached. Prince Edward’s widow Joan mediated and helped John reconcile with Wykeham and restore his temporalities on June 18. De la Mare was also released. On June 21 Edward III died. He had reigned for more than fifty years and spent £130,000 on palaces, castles, chapels, and hunting lodges. Yet his military victories made him a popular king.

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After failing to intercept English ships, Robert Bruce and his men in January 1307 attacked the English garrison at Turnberry in his own earldom of Carrick. His brothers Thomas and Alexander landed at Loch Ryan in February, but they were wounded and captured by Dungal MacDowell in Galloway and sent to Carlisle, where Edward had them hanged. The English attacked Robert Bruce at Perth, unhorsing him three times, but he escaped and retreated to Athol with about five hundred men. In the spring of 1307 Bruce moved to the island of Arran with three hundred men. On May 10 with a smaller force he overcame Earl Aymer de Valence of Pembroke at Loudoun Hill in Ayshire, and three days later Bruce defeated the earl of Gloucester. In September some Galwegians paid Bruce a ransom for a short truce. In November the Inverlochy castle surrendered, and he advanced up the Great Glen. Ailing Edward I died in July and was succeeded by his son Edward of Caernarvon.