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ADR – .

ADSR – , , , . These elements define the sounds (or ) generated by a keyboard instrument or synthesizer. See also .

ADT – or .

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) – a method of and developed by , , , , and . It is designed to achieve better sound quality than MP3 at similar and file sizes. AAC has been made part of the and specifications. There are several types (profiles) of AAC encoding used for various applications, which are usually automatically selected by the encoder based on encoding options: AAC-LC (Low Complexity) profile, which is suitable for higher compression ratios, AAC-LD (Low Delay) profile which optimizes playback speed, used for real-time applications such as telephones, and (High Efficiency) profile, which has enhanced features.

Advanced Video Coding (AVC) – a standard based on motion-compensation used for the and distribution of video , supporting up to 4096 × 2304, including . Also known as , or . See also (HEVC).

Advent Corporation – a consumer electronics company founded by Henry Kloss in 1967. It manufactured , , , and other electronic devices. In 1981, long after Kloss had left Advent, the company went into bankruptcy, and it was acquired by Jensen Electronics. In 2004, Jensen was acquired by Audiovox, which became in 2012.

Aeolian mode – one of the seven musical or with the interval pattern of tone-semitone-tone-tone-semitone-tone-tone. This is also known as the natural .

aerial – see .

aeroacoustics – the study of the generation and transmittance of sound by fluid flow or the study of aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces.

aerophone – a classifications for musical in which a vibrating mass of air produces the initial sound according to the system of musical instrument classification. This classification includes , , and , as well as instruments that fall into none of these groups. The other four classifications are , , , and .

AES – .

AES3 – a professional audio standard for an developed jointly by the (AES) and the (EBU), formerly known as AES/EBU. The standard provides the technical details for transmitting via a . There are three types of connection in common use: (a) Type I - Balanced XLR, (b) Type II - Unbalanced RCA, and (c) Type III - Optical. Type I connections use , 3-conductor, 110-ohm cables with connectors, typically used in professional installations. They are considered the AES3 standard connector. Type II connections use , 2-conductor, 75-ohm with , typically used in consumer audio installations. They are known as connections. Type III use , commonly known as cables. Type III optical connections are used in both professional and consumer audio equipment. They are also known as connections.

AES3id – a subset of the (AES/EBU) standard with different hardware requirements. While AES3 specifies 110-ohm connections, AES3id specifies 75-ohm connections, the same as as connections, except AES3id usually uses connections rather than . The data contained in the transmission using both formats are identical.

AES3-MIC – a that conforms to the digital interface standard.

AES10 – a standard established by the (AES) that defines the (MADI). MADI can carry either 56 or 64 on a single or connection. The AES10 standard has features in common with the two-channel interface.

AES11 – a standard established by the (AES) for the of . AES11 recommends using a specific form of an signal to distribute audio within a facility, a connection referred to as a (DARS).

AES17 – a standard established by the (AES) that defines a method of evaluating the performance of and .

AES31 – a standard established by the (AES) for the interchange of audio projects between different systems, especially audio editing projects between . The standard is divided into three parts. Part 1 specifies the disk format. Part 2 defines the file format. Part 3 defines a standard for .

AES42 – an extension of the (AES/EBU) standard to and includes the ability to transmit and receive data along with the . The audio information is carried as AES3 data, while a modulated 10-volt supply conveys remote control and data. This data provides the ability to remotely control parameters, such as , , , , , and , as well as feedback about signal levels and the status of the mic.

AES47 – a standard established by the as a standardized method for packing professional audio streams over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks.

AES51 – a standard established by that specifies a method of carrying Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells over for use with to carry audio transport structure. The purpose of this is to provide an open standarid, Ethernet-based approach to the networking of linear () digital audio with extremely high quality-of-service along with standard Internet Protocol connections.

AES59 – a specification established by for 25-pin used for connections or for multi-channel (AES/EBU) connections. Currently there are primarily two D-Sub wiring methods: (a) TASCAM, used by , , , , and others, and (b) Yamaha, used by , , Mackie, , , and others. Since these two are not compatible, this standard (which uses the TASCAM pin out) was created to standardize D-Sub pinouts.

AES67 – a standard established by for (AoIP) and (AoE) interoperability. It specifies a baseline set of protocols to enable synchronized audio connectivity between AoIP and AoE using various using various audio systems, such as standards for , quality of service, and methods to bridge between different AoIP implementations.

AES70 – a standard established by for Open Control Architecture (OCA), a communications protocol, originally proposed by the OCA Alliance in January 2016, to control, monitor, and manage connections of media (networked and devices). It allows for the creation and deletion of signal paths, access control, control of processing, and firmware updates. Control can be via wired or . OCA is an open standard that requires no licenses, fees, or memberships.

AESC – American Engineering Standards Committee. See (ANSI).

AES/EBU interface – see .

AES II – refers to an Type II connector.

AES standards – standards established by the for use in the audio industry. Some of those standards are listed above. Others can be found on the page of their website.

aftertouch – a message for the amount of pressure applied to a when it is pressed down. See also .

AF – (1) Audio Frequencies. See . (2) Alternate Frequency. See

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AM radio – the of using .

AM radio band – the portion of the from about 550 kHz to 1600 kHz (in the US—some countries use other ranges) and using .

AM receiver – (1) An device (a ) that receives incoming (AM) and converts them into sound or data.

AM rejection – the ability of an to reject signals from and AM generated by electrical devices and natural sources.

AMS – Audio MIDI Setup. A utility program that comes with the Mac OS X operating system to set up the audio (IO) configurations of the computer and to manage devices.

AMS Neve, Ltd. – a company headquartered in Burnley, Lancashire, UK, that designs and manufactures professional and equipment. It began as Neve Electronics, which was founded in the 1960s by Rupert Neve, who designed and built . Rupert Neve sold the company in 1973 to the Bonochord Group and left the company in 1975. Rupert Neve went into business as ARN Consultants, which eventually became . In 1985 Neve Electronics was acquired by the Siemens group. Siemens then acquired Advanced Music Systems (AMS) and combined it with Neve Electronics in 1992 to form AMS Neve.

AM stereo – the of audio on the using a technique that is compatible with standard . In 1993 the designated (QAM) or (C-QUAM) (similar in concept to FM stereo) as the method for AM stereo broadcasts in the US. Although initially a large number of stations implemented stereo broadcasting, that number soon began to decline due to a lack of receivers and a migration of music to the with AM becoming primarily news, talk, and sports programming.

AMT – .

analog – an system that uses a continuously varying to represent a physical variable, such as the produced by a microphone representing , as opposed to , which uses a stream of digits to represent such a variable. The British spelling is .

analog computer – a type of that uses models to solve problems by representing the data as a continuously variable physical phenomenon, such as electricl or , mechanical rotation of gears, or fluid flow. In contrast, solve problems using numerical values. British spelling .

analog chorus – see .

analog delay – a that runs incoming audio through that the that is then played back after a specified time period. It may add additional effects such as and to create the sounds of an . See also . British spelling .

analog domain – the processing of images, sounds, video, and other data in their original format, as opposed to the .

analog filter – an that reduces certain of an leaving the rest, as opposed to an , which is an that performs a similar operation on a . British spelling . See also .

analog opto-isolator – see .

analog recording – the process of recording for later playback as a continuous in or on an analog , such as on a or fluctuations on a , as opposed to , in which such information is stored as data. British spelling .

analog signal – a continuous in which a variable varies with time and is analogous to some other time-varying variable. For example, an is a signal that represents the varying pressure of . It differs from a in that the quantity is represented by digits and can have only one of a finite number of values. British spelling .

analog synthesis – a method to create and manipulate sound using electronic , , and . This technique was used on older analog and . British spelling .

analog synthesizer – see .

analog television – the system in which were , received, and displayed using technology. The portion of the signal was transmitted using , while the audio was transmitted using . In the US analog television broadcasting ended on June 12, 2009, except for a few educational or low-powered transmitters, and was replaced by (DTV). See also and .

analog-to-digital conversion – the process of changing an into a signal that contains essentially the same information, using an . Abbreviated as and . British spelling .

analog-to-digital converter – an device or that converts an into a datasteam. Audio quality depends very greatly on the accuracy of the analog-to-digital converter and the . Abbreviated as , and . British spelling .

analyzer – see or .

anamorphic format – a system in which an image is recorded in a narrower to be subsequently displayed or in its original aspect ratio. For example, a widescreen picture can be shot on standard 35-mm in a non-widescreen aspect ratio and then stretched back to the original widescreen aspect ratio when projected.

anatomical transfer function (ATF) – see .

ANC – Active Noise Control. See .

– a musical term indicating a moderate , at a walking pace, typically 72 to 108 bpm. See .

– a musical term indicating a moderate , slightly faster than , typically 77 to 106 bpm. See .

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Note: We believe this is the largest dictionary (glossary) of terms specific to usage within the recording industry that is currently available on the internet, with more than 8,000 entries, nearly 600 illustrations, and dozens of tables. Some of the terms have different or additional meanings in other situations, especially within the electronic, automotive, scientific, and computer industries. Of necessity there are obvious overlaps into other fields such as music, electronics, and computers, but such excursions are limited to information deemed pertinent to the knowledge required to operate and/or participate effectively in the workings of a recording studio. Also included are terms related to sound reinforcement (live performances) including wireless microphone technology because a working knowledge of that terminology is necessary for recording at live performance venues. Because recording studios also record audio for video and motion pictures (films), some terminology from those fields is included. Some scientific terms are included because they help explain studio terminology. For example, explains how microphones, loudspeakers, and guitar pickups work. Knowledge of and the is needed to explain wireless devices. Any trademarks or trade names mentioned belong to their respective owners. The information contained in this dictionary is believed to be accurate at the time of publication. This information is subject to change without notice. The information was obtained from and cross-checked with a variety of sources that are believed to be reliable. However, Los Senderos Studio, LLC does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the information contained herein. Please to report any errors, omissions, discrepancies, or broken links. Los Senderos Studio shall not be responsible for any consequences or damages arising out of the use of this information. Nothing in this glossary should be interpreted as legal advice. For a glossary providing information on legal and business matters for musicians, we suggest you consult .

A note on alphabetical order: The terms in this glossary are alphabetical without regard to spaces and punctuation. For example, follows . While this may seem to be at odds with other conventions, it eliminates confusion with words such as , which is sometimes written as or . The entries on the number page (0-9) are listed in increasing value within each digit. For example, all of the entries beginning with 1 are listed before those starting with 2. For Greek letters (α-ω), the entries are in Greek alphabetical order.