Gene Manipulation Pros And Cons Biology Essay
227. Wang DQ, Robinson DR, Kwon GS, Samuel J. Encapsulation of plasmid DNA in biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres as a novel approach for immunogene delivery. 1999;1(57):9-18
NASA Is Considering "Gene Manipulation" For Missions …
All the gene transfer methods (viral, physical or chemical) must overcome two major constraints: first, there is a need to carry the nucleic acids to the target cells without potential risks. Viruses are 'naturally' equipments with ability to recognize and locate defined target cells and are 'stealthy' with respect to the body defense mechanisms, such as the reticulo-endothelial system (RES). While chemical vectors should combine with other technologies or conjugate with targeting molecules to realize the specific location. The second constraint is the penetration of the nucleic acids into the cell through the plasma membrane. While viruses achieve this purpose using natural mechanisms, chemical vectors must perturb the plasma membrane (e.g. physical vectors) and/or internal vesicular membranes (e.g. the cationic lipids). In order to obtain an efficient vector system and achieve a high rate of cell transfection, these two conditions must be integrated in the development of an ideal genetic vector.
In conclusion, although PEI has been investigated widely in animals and humans for gene delivery and , there exist a lot of challenges such as the cytotoxicity, insufficient transfection efficiency and instability of the complexes in complicated physiological environments, which blocks their clinical applications. Many kinds of PEI derivatives have shown relatively lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency, nevertheless, it is really a long way to go before using them for clinical treatment. Generally, new vectors with well-marked reduced toxicity, improved transfection efficiency and better stability of the complexes , are of great importance. That is to say, great emphasis should be placed on the inner mechanism of toxicity, effective targeting of cells or organs, enhanced nuclear localization and how to pass through the barriers to cells or nuclei.
Gene manipulation in plants - OpenLearn - Open …
To evaluate the potential of the lipid transfection reagents in the clinical application, many researchers have embarked on the transfection experiments with functional gene [-]. Nabel et al. have developed a protocol which relies upon the direct transmission of human HLA-B7 gene into established tumors , which can perform successful gene expression and show no apparent toxicity .
Gene Manipulation In Human Embryos Provokes ..
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However, there still exist numerous and barriers for polymer-based vehicles to achieve ideal transfection efficiency. For transfection, polymeric nanoparticles have no structure as magic as viruses to enter cells and just depend on the unpredictable endocytosis. Thus on one hand more detailed information about the endocytosis mechanism obtained by varying technical methods is needed to increase the entrance into the cells. On the other hand, the size, surface potential and N/P ratio (ratio of nitrogen of polymer to phosphate of DNA) were deeply investigated and some targeting groups like nuclear localization signal were integrated to the nanoparticles. Morover, the escape of nanoparticles from the organelle and DNA from the complexes is one of the key elements influencing the transfection efficiency. For example, particular interest was garnered by PEI mainly for its organelle-escape units. Another big problem for polymeric nanoparticles is the cytotoxicity, which results from poor biodegradability. So the degradable moieties have been incorporated into polymer, such as coating with human serum albumin, dextran, PEG and so forth. Out of these, the specific hurdle for transfection is that polymeric nanoparticles are foreign materials whose invasion will lead to the immune response by the body. The most effective solution is PEGylation, which help avoid the clearance of the reticuloendothelial system. Many researchers are dedicated to devising polymer-based vehicles for exogenous gene transfection and great efforts have been made for gene transfection .
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Modifying crops to produce the Bt toxin (Section 3.1) was, in some ways, relatively simple. The toxin is a single protein and can therefore be produced as a result of the insertion of a single gene into the plant's genome. Similarly, introducing herbicide tolerance (Section 3.2) typically involves modifying the action of a single enzyme, and therefore modification again involves the insertion of a single gene.