The Cold War | Lies, Liars, Beatniks and Hippies
When Germany and Japan began stepping on imperial toes, the situation became strained, although the USA declared war on Germany Germany declared war on them, after the . When it came time to put down the imperial upstarts, communists received a quick makeover, and one of history’s bloodiest tyrants, Joseph Stalin, became in the USA, at least while there were Nazis to defeat. The Pacific Theater was , to . As World War II ended, America quickly hired all the useful Nazis, even . The epitomized American foreign policy, as it was , and , to wage covert war against Uncle Joe. There were even plans to , with Nazi help. The reign of Joe McCarthy in those post-war years was no anomaly, but neatly aligned with the USA's and fabricating the communist threat, which was really the threat that the might free itself from the West’s shackles.
Hayek and the Welfare State — Crooked Timber
The era from about 1870 to World War I is generally seen as a cultural golden age in imperial Europe, known as La Belle Époque. The Impressionist and post-Impressionist period was one Europe’s more fecund artistic eras. Life expectancy in England began rising dramatically during the late 19th century, from about 40 years for a man in 1860, to more than 50 in 1910. companies began taking note of obesity and mortality, as obesity was no longer the sole province of the rich. While Europe was having fun, the peoples in its imperial domains were devastated. King Leopold was just one of the gang. The imperial, capitalistic conquests of the UK in Asia dealt severe blows to the economic, political, and cultural systems in India, and China also suffered. El Niño events in the late 1870s and late 1890s, combined with the effects of European imperialism, created two catastrophes that killed off between 40 and 60 million people in , while boxcars of food with armed guards were shipped to Europe. Between 1750 and 1900, Europe’s population rose from 17 to 21% of world population, while South Asia’s declined from 23 to 20%. It partly had to do with a resource transfer. The same resource-transfer situation prevails today, with more than a billion overweight people and more than a billion underweight people; the and the skinny ones in the colonial world.
The English also joined the spice trade, and in 1622 an English-Persian expedition seized Ormuz from Portugal, in present day Oman, at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Dutch imperial supremacy did not last long. With the devastating Thirty Years’ War ending in 1648, it did not take England and the Netherlands long to begin a new series of wars; the first began in 1652, and the wars lasted until 1684. The Dutch prevailed but lost to France on the Continent. In 1664, the New Amsterdam colony in North America was lost to the English, but it had other gains. The peak of the Dutch East India Company’s supremacy was around 1669. The Dutch East India Company was a direct forerunner to modern corporations, was a combination of corporation and state, and owning shares of its stock was a lucrative proposition, for a while. The French East India Company entered the fray in 1675 with its outpost at Bombay.