Xerxes I, Old Persian Khshayarsha, byname Xerxes the Great, (born c
During the next century, several diplomats interrupted their voyage to the Persian court to see Persepolis, but they were no scholars. Between 1664 and 1667, however, the French travelers Jean de Thévenot (1633-1667) and Jean Chardin (1643-1713) did some serious research. In his , Thévenot reached the conclusion that Chehel Minar could never have been the palace of the kings of ancient Persia, because it was too small. The columns he saw, were, in his view, the pedestals of the idols of the Persians. As we have seen, he was wrong, but other observations were correct.
Shibboleth: A Templar Monitor: Three Ancient Cities of Persia
Bas-reliefs formed the main part of the Persepolis ornamentation: the double stairway which led on to the terrace and into the palace chambers was decorated with two kinds of bas-relief.
In ancient times, during the first Millenium BCE, Persian emperors like Cyrus II the Great, Xerxes and Darius I extended Persian rule into Central Asia and throughout Asia Minor as far as Greece and Egypt.
Kingdoms of Iran - Persia - The History Files
The absence of stone, which had to be transported at great expense, and the closeness of Mesopotamia were both factors that gave Susa its unique and individual character.
At Susa we are no longer presented with sober processions as we were at Persepolis; here we are spectators in a fairyland of light and colour.
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES – …
Quarrying. Whenever possible quarrying was carried out where stratified stone was bedded horizontally and would fracture in sheets. Blocks could then be cut from the sheets with chisels or crowbars at no great expense, rendering deep shafts and the use of wedges unnecessary (Kleiss, 1981, pp. 197-98). In Achaemenid quarries wedge-shaped holes averaging about 20 cm long, 8 cm wide, and 8-10 cm deep can be observed at wide intervals. In the quarry south of the terrace at Persepolis rough passages or channels had been cut around the blocks; wooden wedges had then been driven into the rock at the back, in order to split off the stone blocks in parallel layers. A road paved with stone chips linked the quarry face to the workings along the upper facade and an adjacent terrace (Kleiss, 1975, pp. 81 ff.). In the Sasanian period, too, straight channels 30-50 cm deep were cut into the rock and wedge-shaped holes closely spaced along them. This technique was lost until recent times and was only reintroduced in connection with modern construction methods.
Mrs. Oz's Ancient River Valley Civilizations
Preparing the site. Already in ancient Persia, as in Hittite Anatolia in the 2nd millennium b.c.e., the technique of making use of the rock surface of a site as foundations for walls was known. In the 8th and 7th centuries b.c.e. the Urartians developed this technique to the highest level of perfection (Kleiss, 1976, pp. 28 ff.). Flat terraces of different sizes and elevations were carved out of the uneven rock surface following the specific conformation of the site, thus preparing a series of level platforms of the required dimensions, on each of which walls could be erected. Those parts of the rock on which there was to be no construction were generally left unworked. The Achaemenids also made extensive use of this technique at Persepolis and other sites. They had probably learned it from the Armenians, who had received it as part of their cultural heritage from the Urartians. Whereas in Urartu, however, rubble or ashlar walls rested on terraces hacked out of living rock or on leveled rock surfaces, in the Achaemenid period such rock-cut terraces served as foundations for walls of mud brick (Kleiss, 1971).
Persepolis was intentionally founded in the ..
The first to make a real contribution to the study of the ruins and to identify them as the capital of ancient Persia, was a Dutchman, (1652-1727), who visited Persepolis in 1704/1705. He made many beautiful drawings, which he published in 1711 in . His drawings were long considered as the best representations available, until the first photographers visited the place in the twentieth century.