Native American music - Musical instruments in the Americas

Indigenous peoples of the Americas - New World Encyclopedia

This article is about the indigenous inhabitants of the Americas

Affirmative action has always been a controversial subject and has been attacked legally and legislatively. This debate centers on a number of questions: to what extent discrimination and bias persist, especially in a systemic way; to what degree affirmative action programs have been effective in providing otherwise unavailable opportunities in education, employment, and business; and to what extent affirmative action programs unfairly deprive opportunities to qualified white Americans. Many supporters of affirmative action policies agree that its practice should be considered temporary and should not be considered by affected groups as an entitlement.

U.S.-Native American Policies in the last half of the 19 th century usually get watered down to only the Plains Indian Wars, Custer’s Last Stand, and Geronimo.

Native Languages of the Americas: Menominee

Despite over three decades of a concerted effort to rectify past racial injustices, race remains a crucial aspect of American society with policy implications throughout our governmental systems.

Paelo-Indians are believed to be the first humans to populate the Americas, around 10,000 B.C.

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Race and Ethnic Policy Issues - Newsbatch

Due to a combination of good fortune and political adroitness, the Menominee managed to maintain friendly relations with the powerful Dakota and Ojibwe even as those two nations fought each other.

What are recent developments on the subject of race relations

Another subject of African American concern is discrimination in punishment and sentencing. Blacks no longer outnumber whites on death row and the rate their death penalty sentencing is roughly equivalent to their high percentage of the prison population. But a discriminatory pattern exists regarding victims. Studies have indicated that homicides involving white victims are far more likely to be prosecuted as death penalty cases. . Proposed legislation which would allow defendants to use such statistical information in appeals was rejected by the Senate in 1994. African Americans also claim that the far more stringent penalties which apply to sellers and users of crack cocaine are discriminatory when compared to those for users of powder cocaine. They note that crack cocaine use is particularly associated with African Americans while powder cocaine is used by the more affluent middle class.

Racial tolerance continues to be a clear trend in American society

The effect of residential segregation aggravates the overall trend of income inequality which disproportionately affects African Americans. High levels of income inequality paired with high levels of racial or ethnic segregation result in geographically concentrated poverty. Studies have indicated that such residential class isolation is a primary cause of reduced employment, lowered incomes, fewer marriages and increased unwed childbearing.


The poverty statistics associated with Hispanics are primarily a reflection of their recent immigration. The substantially lower wage rate reflects the high proportion of Hispanics who are immigrants in entry level and agricultural jobs. The wage comparisons substantially improve for natives, and are actually better than African Americans who are at the same educational level. The percentage of Hispanic two-parent families approximates the percentage of such families in the white population. Studies also show that young Hispanics have a very high rate of intermarriage with the white non-Hispanic population.