SARA problem-solving model - New Home | NCJP
The strategy originally was formulated by Alex Osborn (1963),creator of brainstorming, founder of the Creative EducationFoundation (CEF) and co-founder of a highly successfulNew York advertising agency.Sidney Parnes, a bright and creative person who followed Osbornas President of CEF, invested nearly 40 years teaching creativityworkshops and course and thinking about the creative process.The model is usually presented as five steps, but sometimes a preliminary step is added called mess-finding which involveslocating a challenge or problem to which to apply the model.The total six stages are:The steps guide the creative process.
A computational model for solving problems from the …
When two people talk about mathematics problem solving, they may not be talking about the same thing. The rhetoric of problem solving has been so pervasive in the mathematics education of the 1980s and 1990s that creative speakers and writers can put a twist on whatever topic or activity they have in mind to call it problem solving! Every exercise of problem solving research has gone through some agony of defining mathematics problem solving. Yet, words sometimes fail. Most people resort to a few examples and a few nonexamples. Reitman (29) defined a problem as when you have been given the description of something but do not yet have anything that satisfies that description. Reitman's discussion described a problem solver as a person perceiving and accepting a goal without an immediate means of reaching the goal. Henderson and Pingry (11) wrote that to be problem solving there must be a goal, a blocking of that goal for the individual, and acceptance of that goal by the individual. What is a problem for one student may not be a problem for another -- either because there is no blocking or no acceptance of the goal. Schoenfeld (33) also pointed out that defining what is a problem is always relative to the individual.
The work of managers, of scientists, of engineers,of lawyers--the work that steers the course of society and itseconomic and governmental organizations--is largely work ofmaking decisions and solving problems. It is work of choosingissues that require attention, setting goals, finding ordesigning suitable courses of action, and evaluating and choosingamong alternative actions. The first three of theseactivities--fixing agendas, setting goals, and designingactions--are usually called the last,evaluating and choosing, is usually called Nothing is more important for the well-being ofsociety than that this work be performed effectively, that weaddress successfully the many problems requiring attention at thenational level (the budget and trade deficits, AIDS, nationalsecurity, the mitigation of earthquake damage), at the level ofbusiness organizations (product improvement, efficiency ofproduction, choice of investments), and at the level of ourindividual lives (choosing a career or a school, buying ahouse).
Quality Glossary Definition: Problem Solving
It is useful to develop a framework to think about the processes involved in mathematics problem solving. Most formulations of a problem solving framework in U. S. textbooks attribute some relationship to Polya's (26) problem solving stages. However, it is important to note that Polya's "stages" were more flexible than the "steps" often delineated in textbooks. These stages were described as understanding the problem, making a plan, carrying out the plan, and looking back. To Polya (28), problem solving was a major theme of doing mathematics and "teaching students to think" was of primary importance. "How to think" is a theme that underlies much of genuine inquiry and problem solving in mathematics. However, care must be taken so that efforts to teach students "how to think" in mathematics problem solving do not get transformed into teaching "what to think" or "what to do." This is, in particular, a byproduct of an emphasis on procedural knowledge about problem solving as seen in the linear frameworks of U. S. mathematics textbooks (Figure 1) and the very limited problems/exercises included in lessons.
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1. They depict problem solving as a linear process.
2. They present problem solving as a series of steps.
3. They imply that solving mathematics problems is a procedure to be memorized, practiced, and habituated.
4. They lead to an emphasis on answer getting.
This guidance should help you investigate and solve the problem.
Much of our existing knowledge about decisionmaking and problem solving, derived from this research, hasalready been put to use in a wide variety of applications,including procedures used to assess drug safety, inventorycontrol methods for industry, the new expert systems that embodyartificial intelligence techniques, procedures for modelingenergy and environmental systems, and analyses of the stabilizingor destabilizing effects of alternative defense strategies.(Application of the new inventory control techniques, forexample, has enabled American corporations to reduce theirinventories by hundreds of millions of dollars since World War IIwithout increasing the incidence of stockouts.) Some of theknowledge gained through the research describes the ways in whichpeople actually go about making decisions and solving problems;some of it prescribes better methods, offering advice for theimprovement of the process.