Throughout the middle ages and into the 20th century, ..

Nationalism Throughout the Ages essaysHistorians can never agree on anything
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for literature throughout the Middle Ages

I am just thankful that the church's founder, Henry VIII, and his wife Catherine of Aragon, and his wife Anne Boleyn, and his wife Jane Seymour, and his wife Anne of Cleves, and his wife Katherine Howard, and his wife Catherine Parr are no longer here to suffer through this assault on traditional Christian marriages."
— , America's Best Christian, of "Atheist n.

Nationalism Throughout the Ages Guy Fraser found the answer to a search query Religion vs
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Firstly, in a strict sense there was

ASpy is gained at the beginning of each new era, starting with the Renaissance. Spies can gather information on foreign cities, steal technology, learn enemy war plans, perform counter-intelligence missions, and affect influence with City-States by rigging elections or staging coups. Espionage is conducted entirely through menus; Spies are not actual units that appear on the map. There are three spy ranks: Recruit, Agent, and Special Agent. Each subsequent level makes the spy more effective. A higher ranking spy will steal technologies faster, discover and kill enemy spies that are trying to steal from you more frequently, rig elections in City-States more effectively, and have a greater chance of pulling off a coup in a City-State allied with another civilization. Spies level up when they successfully steal technology from another civilization or kill an enemy spy attempting to steal their technology. If a Spy is killed, you will have to wait a set number of turns before receiving a replacement, who will be at Recruit experience level.

by virtually all professing Jews in a variety of ways throughout the ages
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Outside the capital and some other urban centres, Jansenists were a relatively small minority of the French laity (heavily concentrated in the upwardly mobile professional classes) throughout the eighteenth century, and were actually in sharp numerical decline from the mid century.

Muslim-Christian Relations: Historical and Contemporary Realities Summary and Keywords Throughout the nearly fifteen centuries of Muslim-Christian encounter, individual adherents of both traditions often have lived peaceably with each other.
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Are Jews a Nation or a Religion? - Jewish Virtual Library

The Christians were allowed to keep their own languages and customs, to start their own schools and to be visited by missionaries to their own faith from Christendom.

this is the political philosophy of nationalism.

Movement: 4; Strength: 8; Ranged Attack: 10; Range: 2; Cost: 56; Requires Resource: none
Technology: Sailing; Obsolete with: Astronomy; Upgrades to: Galleass
Abilities: +50% vs. Naval, Cannot Enter Deep Ocean, May Not Melee Attack
Game Info:Dominant Ancient Era Naval Unit used to own the seas through the Classic Era with its ranged attack. Only the Byzantines may build it.
Strategy: Attacks with lethal Greek Fire, making it the first naval unit with a ranged attack. This unit fights at +50% strength against other naval units. It cannot enter Deep Ocean tiles.
Notes: Byzantine Unique Unit, replaces Trireme. The Dromon has a ranged attack instead of a melee attack. The historical dromon was a Medieval-era oared galley with the ability to spray Greek Fire from a siphon in the prow.

Carlton J. H. Hayes, Nationalism as a Religion (1926)

From The Islamic History
Islamic history proves very well the tolerance of Islam, even if not all Muslims lived up to this ideal.
But it is a historical fact, that all great wars in Islamic lands were started by non-Muslims:
- The attacks on the first Islamic community at al-Madina
- The crusades against Muslims lands in the Middle Ages
- The continuation of the crusades against Muslims lands in Islamic Spain
- The Mogol attacks on Eastern Islam with the fall of Baghdad and killing of the Khalifa
- Italian aggression against Islamic Lybia
- European attacks on the Ottoman Khalifate until the end
- ...
- The Serb attacks against Muslims in Bosnia in the 1990-ies
- The ongoing assaults of the Zionists, backed up by the US on the Muslim people of Palestine
- The ignoring of UN-resolutions on Kashmir 50 years ago and the violent repression of Muslims by the Indian government
- The war on Islamic Afghanistan for hiding the notorious person, who was their guest, instead of bringing forward proofs for criminal involvement and of using internationally accepted and legal methods in the way of justice.
- The illegitimate war on Iraq in 2003 without this country posing a threat to anyone but its own people.This is just to mention a few of the bloody wars against the Muslims, but the list is much longer.

of determined zealots throughout the world

Unlocks at Era. This branch cannot be active at the same time as Autocracy or Order.
Freedom is best for small, focused empires. In particular, it provides bonuses for Great People and Specialists. Upon adopting Freedom, the rate at which Great People are born is increased by 25%. Adopting all Policies in the Freedom tree will increase the base yield from Great Tile Improvements by 100% and length of Golden Ages increased by 50%.