Mental Illness/Psychological Disorders Causes - WebMD

The Biopsychosocial Perspective to Mental Health and Illness
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Causes of Mental Illness - WebMD

Tien, A. Y.; Anthony, J. C.( 1990) Epidemiological analysis of alcohol and drug use as risk factors for psychotic experiences. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease; 178: 473–480.

Rogers, Anne, and David Pilgrim. 2010. A sociology of mental health and illness. 4th ed. Berkshire, UK: Open Univ. Press.
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Mental Illness and Prisoners: Concerns for Communities …

By definition, environmental factors affect large groups that share common living or working spaces. Thus, they are key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries. Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned. These patterns are present across countries and across regions within countries, as well as at smaller scales, such as across urban neighborhoods (Center on Human Needs, 2012b; Kawachi and Subramanian, 2007). Strong spatial variation is present for a large range of

Carmen, E.; Rieker, P. P.; Mills, T.( 1987) Victims of violence and psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry; 141: 378–383.
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It has become evident that even though some risk factors may be specific to a particular disorder, other risk factors are common to many disorders. A continuing emphasis solely on the identification of risk factors unique to specific mental disorders is not likely to be productive. The low incidence of some mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, makes predictions based on the occurrence of presumed risk factors especially difficult. Instead, there may be greater value in clarifying the role of those risk factors that appear to be common to many mental disorders, especially in view of the frequent co-morbidity of these disorders.

Although  documented a long-standing trend of greater poverty and other social problems in the United States than in peer countries,
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Mental illness can be described in a variety of ways

The contribution of environmental factors to the U.S. health disadvantage is likely to result from dynamic and reinforcing relationships between environmental and individual-level factors. Environmental factors also operate over a person’s life course, so that the environments one experiences early in life may influence health trajectories over time. Environmental factors are in turn linked to upstream social and policy determinants. In many ways, the environment can be thought of as the mid- or “meso-” level of influence linking macrolevel factors (e.g., economic and social policy) and microlevel processes (e.g., individual behavior). A comprehensive understanding of the causes of the U.S. health disadvantage will require recognizing how the environment interacts with these other factors and helps perpetuate or mitigate the disadvantage across a broad set of health domains.

7 Physical and Social Environmental Factors | U.S

At this time, there is no research base sufficient to mount a preventive intervention campaign with potential AD victims. Research must continue to be focused on identification of risk factors, through research on genetics, continued basic research, and further epidemiological studies. It must also begin to identify the relative and attributable risks associated with each of these factors. The best hope for prevention in the near future lies in the research focused on delaying the onset of AD, either through education early in life or through the prophylactic use of drugs to improve cognitive function or to impede amyloid deposition in high-risk individuals. Although effective prevention often does not require a complete causal theory, it does require more robust risk and protective factor studies than exist for AD. The literature to date has netted three malleable factors—education, smoking, and head trauma—that are plausibly associated with AD. In all three cases, the reasons to change behavior are even stronger for other purposes than prevention of dementia. Reducing head trauma and promoting education are laudable social goals that may reduce future AD prevalence. Promoting smoking as a protective factor for AD is absurd given tobacco's serious health risks for cancer and heart disease. A more targeted prevention strategy depends either on discoveries that come from basic research or stronger epidemiological evidence of malleable risk factors than has been discovered to date. On the other hand, research trials on interventions to prevent stress-induced effects among caregivers of AD patients are warranted. Such studies will require rigorous methodology, including valid outcome measures.

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Family Studies. The most prominent biological risk factor is heredity, although some legitimate controversy exists. Although there is widespread acceptance that genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia, two studies have questioned whether narrowly diagnosed schizophrenia is a familial disorder (Abrams and Taylor, 1983; Pope, Jones, Cohen, and Lipinski, 1982), claiming that earlier studies suffered from a lack of controls, bias in diagnoses, and inconsistent diagnostic criteria. In the 1980s, five careful studies reported a greater than fivefold increased risk in first-degree relatives (Kendler, Masterson, and Davis, 1985). Bolstered by more recent studies, this suggests genetic and/or shared environmental factors in families that increase the risk of schizophrenia (see ). On the other hand, absence of a positive family history does not ensure freedom from risk. Positive family history shifts probabilities, but it is still not sufficiently clarifying except among identical twins, who actually share the same genetic material.