Sociology (Chapter One) Flashcards | Quizlet
Awareness had increasingly made society to begin to make wiser choices and many manufacturers's have developed more sustainable products, formed from biodegradable, non-toxic chemical building blocks. Successful studies have affirmed a number of petroleum-free construction materials as a smart and sustainable plastic alternative. Today, new forms of food wares made from renewable materials that are digestible by microorganisms. The ideas are being made available to reduced and eventually eliminate health and environmental concerns of plastics and styrofoam.
Chapter 2: Human Societies As Sociocultural Systems - …
Changes in ecological conditions may favor the spread of pathogens, parasites, and diseases, with potentially serious effects on human health, agriculture, and fisheries. The increase in average temperature could increase the number of heat-related illnesses and deaths. Warmer temperatures could increase the concentrations of unhealthy . Heat waves can lead to heat stroke and dehydration. Young children, older adults, people with medical conditions, and the poor are more vulnerable than others to heat-related illness. Heat waves are also often accompanied by periods of stagnant air, leading to increases in air pollution and the associated health effects.
Judgments of consequences in social trade-offs tend to involve other issues as well. One is a distance effect: The farther away in distance or the further away in time the consequences of a decision are, the less importance we are likely to give them. City dwellers, for instance, are less likely to support national crop-support legislation than are farmers, and farmers may not wish to have their federal tax dollars pay for inner-city housing projects. As individuals, we find it difficult to resist an immediate pleasure even if the long-term consequences are likely to be negative, or to endure an immediate discomfort for an eventual benefit. As a society, similarly, we are likely to attach more importance to immediate benefits (such as rapidly using up our oil and mineral deposits) than to long-term consequences (shortages that we or our descendants may suffer later).
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At the other theoretical extreme is the purely socialist system, which assumes that the wisest and fairest allocation of resources is achieved through government planning of what is produced and who gets it at what cost. Most enterprises are initiated and financed by the government. All resources of production are owned by the state, on the assumption that private ownership causes greed and leads to the exploitation of workers by owners. According to socialist theory, people contribute their work and talents to society not for personal gain but for the social good; and the government provides benefits for people fairly, on the basis of their relative needs, not their talent and effort. The welfare of the society as a whole is regarded as being more important than the rights of any individuals.
Chapter 7: HUMAN SOCIETY - Project 2061
It is useful to think of the economy of a nation as tending toward one or the other of two major theoretical models. At one theoretical extreme is the purely capitalist system, which assumes that free competition produces the best allocation of scarce resources, the greatest productivity and efficiency, and the lowest costs. Decisions about who does what and who gets what are made naturally as consumers and businesses interact in the marketplace, where prices are strongly influenced by how much something costs to make or do and how much people are willing to pay for it. Most enterprises are initiated by individuals or voluntary groups of people. When more resources are needed than are available to any one person (such as to build a factory), they may be obtained from other people, either by taking out loans from banks or by selling ownership shares of the business to other people. High personal motivation to compete requires private ownership of productive resources (such as land, factories, and ships) and minimal government interference with production or trade. According to capitalist theory, individual initiative, talent, and hard work are rewarded with success and wealth, and individual political and economic rights are protected.
Human Trafficking: Its Problems in the Society - …
How are the PLA products (cutlery, bags, cups etc.) manufactured ?
They are made by processes which are similar to how plastic products are made - injection molding, extrusion or thermal formed.