Reading Fluency forStruggling Readers
Norman also noted the growth of developmental kindergarten classes, which enroll kindergarten-age students whose parents want them to have an extra year of preparation before starting in a traditional kindergarten class.
Again- thanks so much for your program.- Susan RaberI
Hart, T., & Risley, B. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Biemiller, A. (2006). Vocabulary development and instruction: A prerequisite for school learning. In S. Neuman and D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of Early Literacy Research (Vol 2) (41-51). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Boardman, A. G., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Murray, C. S., & Kosanovich, M. (2008). Effective instruction for adolescent struggling readers: A practice brief. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
How schools plan to improve student literacy
As much as possible, word study should be linked to course content, so that students have reason to know and use the given words, and it should be treated as just one part of a larger effort to engage students in discussing interesting books and other materials and in writing and expressing their own ideas.
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The goal of word study isn't just to memorize words and word patterns but to help students to develop "word consciousness," a term that experts use to describe a curious and playful attitude toward language. In the long run, kids who learn to enjoy words — having fun with rhymes, puns, word play, and the use of rare and unusual words — will learn far more than those who are forced to memorize word lists and complete dry workbook exercises.
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While struggling readers may benefit from word study, that doesn't mean you should turn the class into a deadly-dull word study workshop. Rather, while word study should be regular and frequent, it should be limited to relatively brief sessions (closer to ten or fifteen minutes than an hour at a time). And when it comes to learning new words, less is more — teach students 5-10 words at a time, rather than overwhelming them with 20-30.
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Students often need to be shown, explicitly, that many of the words they read share common prefixes (such as pre-, pro-, and auto-), suffixes (such as -ology, -ous, and -ism), and roots (such as -ped, used in "pedal" and "pedestrian").
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For example, words such as were, where, have, give, said, could, again, and been. Don't just have students memorize word lists, though — they'll have an easier time learning and remembering words that they see and use regularly. Highlight such words in reading passages and books, assign students to use them in their own writing, and ask them to keep track of the words they've mastered.