Naturalism - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy

Naturalism is "the idea or belief that nothing exists beyond the natural world"

Naturalism Examples and Definition - Literary Devices

Another name for empirical evidence is natural evidence: the evidence found innature. Naturalism is the philosophy that says that "Reality and existence (i.e. theuniverse, cosmos, or nature) can be described and explained solely in terms of naturalevidence, natural processes, and natural laws." This is exactly what science tries todo. Another popular definition of naturalism is that "The universe exists as sciencesays it does." This definition emphasizes the strong link between science and naturalevidence and law, and it reveals that our best understanding of material reality andexistence is ultimately based on philosophy. This is not bad, however, for, whethernaturalism is ultimately true or not, science and naturalism reject the concept ofultimate or absolute truth in favor of a concept of proximate reliable truth that is farmore successful and intellectually satisfying than the alternative, the philosophy ofsupernaturalism. The supernatural, if it exists, cannot be examined or tested by science,so it is irrelevant to science. It is impossible to possess reliable knowledge about thesupernatural by the use of scientific and critical thinking. Individuals who claim to haveknowledge about the supernatural do not possess this knowledge by the use of criticalthinking, but by other methods of knowing.

Renaissance and Naturalism | History of Science

Science has unquestionably been the most successful human endeavor in thehistory of civilization, because it is the only method that successfully discovers andformulates reliable knowledge. The evidence for this statement is so overwhelming thatmany individuals overlook exactly how modern civilization came to be (our moderncivilization is based, from top to bottom, on the discoveries of science and theirapplication, known as technology, to human purposes.). Philosophies that claim to possessabsolute or ultimate truth invariably find that they have to justify their beliefs byfaith in dogma, authority, revelation, or philosophical speculation, since it isimpossible to use finite human logic or natural evidence to demonstrate the existence ofthe absolute or ultimate in either the natural or supernatural worlds. Scientific andcritical thinking require that one reject blind faith, authority, revelation, andsubjective human feelings as a basis for reliable belief and knowledge. These humancognitive methods have their place in human life, but not as the foundation for reliableknowledge.

In proposing this I don't mean to suggest that there exist some supernatural, death-defying connections between consciousnesses which could somehow preserve elements of memory or personality. This is not at all what I have in mind, since material evidence suggests that everything a person consists of--a living body, awareness, personality, memories, preferences, expectations, etc.--is erased at death. Personal subjective continuity as I defined it above requires that experiences be those of a particular person; hence, this sort of continuity is bounded by death. So when I say that you should look forward, at death, to the "subjective sense of always having been present," I am speaking rather loosely, for it is not you--not this set of personal characteristics--that will experience "being present." Rather, it will be another set of characteristics (in fact, countless sets) with the capacity, perhaps, for completely different sorts of experience. But, despite these (perhaps radical) differences, it will share the qualitatively very same sense of always having been here, and, like you, will never experience its cessation.