Comparing Francia of Charlemagne's day to , i.e.

In European languages,

The orange area on the map above merits special notice.

The Crusading Order of the Knights Templars, who had essentially become bankers, was destroyed, its wealth seized, and its members tortured and judicially murdered (1307-1314).

Meanwhile, Constantinople was a real capital, with resident Emperors of legally absolute power.

Lithuanian and Lativian are the remaining Baltic languages.

This was at the cost of the Spanish Hapsburg line; but the failed second siege of Vienna in 1683, directed in support of France, resulted in Hungary being liberated from the and thus rebounded with new power, possessions, and prestige for the Hapsburgs, whose domain now grew into the "Danubian" Monarchy.

This was eventually effected in alliance with England, in the course of the War of the League of Augsburg (or Nine Years War, 1688-1697) and the great War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

Modern , like Lithuania, has at long last again become independent.

The Hapsburg response to enforce their authority became an opportunistic effort to suppress the heterodox religious practices that had been tolerated in Bohemia.

A duke is only inferior to a sovereign prince.

The struggle with Protestantism, which for Spain mainly meant dealing with the revolt in the , and then war with England, for Austrians came to mean the devastating Thirty Years War (1618-1648).

the Netherlands and Belgium, and Italy).

The subsequent period continues the Golden Age of Spain, as the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs worked together for their own interests and for those of the cause of Catholicism.

The "Third Reich," of course, had no Emperor.

Duke of Elector, 1806With the Spanish inheritance left to his son Philip II, Charles also wanted him to receive the Imperial title and German lands.

Here I will mention a few general sources.

But when Frederick II fell on Silesia in 1740, the War of the Austrian Succession, on the () pretext of disputing the female succession of Maria Theresa to Austrian possessions, it became clear who the real rival would be.

has now found a used copy for me after some months of searching.

The loss to history is appalling and incalculable, however unlikely it was that people of the era would have had a disinterested curiosity or respect for such things.

At lot of this, however, now looks a bit dated.

Since Charles was ruling when was conquered in 1521 and in 1533, we might wonder what curiosity he might have had about these new civilizations, unknown to either the Ancient or Mediaeval worlds.