At the request of the pope, Charlemagne attacked

Charlemagne himself ruled modern France, northern Italy, and most of modern Germany.

Charlemagne came to Rome and restored the

The Treaty of Passau restored the Protestant position in Germany, and then in the end Charles conceded, in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), that German princes could establish whatever Church they wanted (well, either Lutheran or Catholic, at first), on the famous principle , "of whom the realm, of him the religion."Here we see a great portrait, by Titian (d.1576) from 1548, of Charles V, the most powerful Emperor since Charlemagne, and the first, as well as the last, with vast beyond Europe.

In Charlemagne's day, that included marches in Spain contesting the Islâmic advance.

Then, at the Christmas service while Charlemagne knelt

The election of Frederick III, who became the last Emperor crowned at Rome by the Pope, put the Hapsburgs in virtual hereditary possession of the title, with but one exception, for the rest of its history.

Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, described the king as a natural

Whether or not we agree with his decisions, Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, was influential, and he is an example of how one man can change history.

Charlemagne did not

The last Emperor crowned in Arles was Charles IV in 1365.

Moscow and only properly made Emperor by Papal coronation, with all its expressed and implied conditions, not surprisingly was soon shown to be wielding a fatally compromised and fading form of power.
In the treatment here, "Francia" will mean all of Europe that in the Mediaeval period was subject to the Roman Catholic Church, with its Latin liturgy, headed by the , the Bishop of Rome.

Biography: Charlemagne - Ducksters

(The Schism of 1054 separated the Latin Church from the of the East.) Since the Pope retained the right to crown Emperors in the area subject to his Church, the Emperors in Charlemagne's line retained an implicit primacy, if not sovereignty, over all of Roman Catholic Europe, however little actual authority they may have exercised.
For many centuries, Latin was the principal, sometimes the , written language over an area, "greater" Francia, that came to stretch from Norway to Portugal and from Iceland to Catholic parts of the Ukraine.

Charlemagne 742 A.D. & Great Grandfather Ansegisel 602 …

The last time the Pope was called upon to crown an Emperor was when Napoleon decided to reclaim the title for the Western Franks, the French (and himself), in 1804.

Holy Roman Empire, Charlemagne - World history

Napoleon knew better, however, than to allow that the Pope really had the kind of authority that the coronation of Charlemagne implied: Napoleon took the crown from the Pope's hands and crowned himself.

Charlemagne | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts - …

Charlemagne's grandfather was Charles Martel, the warrior who crushed the Saracens. Charlemagne was the elder son of Bertrade ("Bertha Greatfoot") and Pepin the Short, first "mayor of the palace" to become king of the Franks. Although schools had almost disappeared in the 8th century, historians believe that Bertrade gave young Charles some education and that he learned to read. His devotion to the church motivated him throughout life.