History of Anglo-Saxon England - Wikipedia
King William "inherited" the English throne as heir to Edward the Confessor, with, after the battle of Hastings, substantial support from the remaining English nobility. Until 1071 the reign was spent suppressing English rebellions. After that date, by which time much of the English nobility had been eliminated, William had mainly Continental problems to deal with. The conquest of much of Wales was undertaken in the years 1070 to 1085. When William died the chronicles generally agreed that he was a good, but stern king. It had been possible during his reign for a man to walk with his pockets full of gold from one end of William's realm to the other with no-one touching him through their fear of the king.
Historical Essays: Childhood in Medieval England
Hanawalt, Barbara. Growing Up in Medieval London. New York & Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993.
---. The Ties that Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England. New York & Oxford: Oxford UP, 1986.
Orme, Nicholas. Medieval Children. New Haven & London: Yale UP, 2001.
---. Medieval Schools. New Haven and London: Yale UP, 2006.
Second and eldest surviving son of Henry II. Richard had little interest in Britain, except for using it as a bank to finance his Middle Eastern and Continental ambitions. As soon as he had succeeded his father, Richard began selling the offices of state to raise money for his cherished crusade. England during his time was run by a series of Justiciars who in effect were regents. Richard only returned to his kingdom once in 1194 to put down the rebellion of his brother Prince John and to be crowned a second time. The rest of his reign was spent in incessant wars in France.