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History of Europe in the 19th century
The Varna culture belongs to the late Eneolithic of northern Bulgaria. It is conventionally dated between 4,400-4,100 B.C, and is contemporary with Karanovo VI in the South. It is characterized by polychrome pottery and rich cemeteries, the most famous of which are at the Varna Necropolis, the eponymous site, and the Durankulak complex, which comprises the largest prehistoric cemetery in southeastern Europe (1,200 graves), with an adjoining coeval Neolithic settlement and an unpublished and incompletely excavated Chalcolithic settlement. Burial is normally flat on the back, sometimes covered with stones. Grave gifts include bracelets of Spondylus, carnelian beads, gold beads and pendants, and blades of blond balcanic flint. Over 3000 gold artifacts were found, with a weight of approximately 6 kilograms (over 13 lb.). Grave 43 contained more gold, than has been found in the entire rest of the world for that epoch - see skeleton below.
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The Ottomans in Europe | History Today
But even if the man from Kostenki in Russia had all these elements 36,000 years ago, that doesn’t mean that other Europeans did, Reich says. His team’s DNA data and models suggest that Europeans in the west and north did not pick up DNA from the steppes until much later. He and Krause also think that Willerslev’s study needs to be confirmed with higher resolution sequencing to rule out contamination, and to have more population genetics modeling explain the distribution of these genetic types. The bottom line, researchers agree, is that European origins are “seem to be much more complex than most people thought,” Willerslev says.
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Willerslev extracted 13 samples of DNA from the arm bone, and his graduate student Andaine Seguin-Orlando and other lab members sequenced the ancient genome to a final coverage of 2.42x, which is relatively low and means that on average each nucleotide site was read 2.4 times. From the sequence data, they found gene variants indicating that the man had dark skin and eyes. He also had about 1% more Neandertal DNA than do Europeans and Asians today, confirming what another, even older human from Siberia had shown—that humans and Neandertals mixed early, before 45,000 years ago, perhaps in the Middle East.
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The Periphery of Francia: Spain, Britain, Eastern Europe, …
The Selk'nam, also known as the Onawo or Ona people, were an indigenous people in the Patagonian region of southern Argentina and Chile, including the Tierra del Fuego islands. They were one of the last aboriginal groups in South America to be encountered by ethnic Europeans or Westerners in the late 19th century. With the discovery of gold and expansion of sheep farming, the Argentine and Chilean governments began efforts to explore, colonize and integrate the indigenous peoples of Tierra del Fuego (the "land of fire", named by early European explorers observing smoke from Selk'nam fires) into their cultures.
Spain and Portugal , 718 AD-Present
Haplogroup R1b predominates in Western Europe. R1b can be found at high frequency in Bashkortostan (Russia). R1b can be found at low frequency in Central Asia, Middle East, South Asia as well as North Africa. There is an isolated pocket of R1b in Sub Saharan Africa. In Europe, R1b coincides with areas of Celtic influence.
Article Details: 8 Things You Should Know About WWII’s Eastern Front
One people, the Yamana/Yahgan may have been driven to this inhospitable area by enemies to the north: they were famed for their complete indifference to the bitter weather around Cape Horn. Although they had fire and small domed shelters, they routinely went about completely naked in the frigid cold and biting wind of Tierra del Fuego, and swam in its 48 degree waters. They would often sleep in the open completely unsheltered and unclothed while Europeans shivered under their blankets. A Chilean researcher claimed their average body temperature was warmer than a European's by at least one degree. Yaghans established many settlements within Tierra del Fuego; But the Yahgan, who never numbered more than 3,000 individuals, could not survive contact with diseases brought by Westerners. They allegedly became sick immediately if the missionaries persuaded them to put on some clothes. In the 1920s some were resettled on Keppel Island in the Falklands in an attempt to preserve the tribe.
Eastern Bluebird History - Sialis Home
The Huns were a nomadic pastoral people from Mongolia eastern Asia who invaded Europe circa 370 A.D, and created an enormous empire centered in Germany. They were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu, a northern people who were frequently at war with the Shang of China. Note, the Turkic, so-called "White Huns" (Hephthalites) had no direct connection with the Huns, these were White tribes who deliberately called themselves Huns, in order to frighten their enemies.