The technical aspects of the work are described in section 7 below.
It is clear that the traditional teaching on this topic has concentrated on the theory of , understood as a state which includes the souls of infants who die subject to original sin and without baptism, and who, therefore, neither merit the beatific vision, nor yet are subjected to any punishment, because they are not guilty of any personal sin. This theory, elaborated by theologians beginning in the Middle Ages, never entered into the dogmatic definitions of the Magisterium, even if that same Magisterium did at times mention the theory in its ordinary teaching up until the Second Vatican Council. It remains therefore a possible theological hypothesis. However, in the (1992), the theory of limbo is not mentioned. Rather, the Catechism teaches that infants who die without baptism are entrusted by the Church to the mercy of God, as is shown in the specific funeral rite for such children. The principle that God desires the salvation of all people gives rise to the hope that there is a path to salvation for infants who die without baptism (cf. , ), and therefore also to the theological desire to find a coherent and logical connection between the diverse affirmations of the Catholic faith: the universal salvific will of God; the unicity of the mediation of Christ; the necessity of baptism for salvation; the universal action of grace in relation to the sacraments; the link between original sin and the deprivation of the beatific vision; the creation of man “in Christ”.
Cf. Eph 1:6, 9: “the purpose () of his will”.
- excellence of the intellect or rational part of the soul; intellectual virtues include , art, and intellectual vision - the intellectual activity by which the soul of the good person, in the afterlife, knows the divine essence; this "vision" is beatific, that is, it constitutes perfect happiness in the soul - a tending to some end; properly an act of the will; the object of an intention is the end.
The intellectalso has an important moral function; it has an apprehension or perception ofparticular goods that it presents to the will; this is the way the intellect "moves"the will.
The Intellectual Grenades of Charles Murray | The …
- the rational faculty, usually contrasted with the passions, or with the sensible and irascible appetites; sometimes equated with intellect, sometimes not; when contrasted with intellect, reason has to do with reasoning, as in or or proof while intellect relates to the direct mental grasp of basic truths.
Thomas Aquinas: Commentary on the Gospel of John
(v) the Church must make “supplications, prayers and intercessions … for all” (1 Tim 2:1-8), based on faith that for God’s creative power “nothing is impossible” (Job 42:2; Mk 10:27; 12:24.27; Lk 1:37), and on the hope that the whole creation will finally share in the glory of God (cf. Rom 8:22-27).
Thomas’ commentary on the Gospel of St
10. There seems to be a tension between two of the biblical doctrines just mentioned: the universal salvific will of God on the one side, and the necessity of sacramental Baptism on the other. The latter seems to limit the extension of God’s universal salvific will. Hence a hermeneutical reflection is needed about how the witnesses of tradition (Church Fathers, the magisterium, theologians) read and used biblical texts and doctrines with respect to the problem being dealt with. More specifically, one has to clarify what kind of ‘necessity’ is claimed with respect to the sacrament of Baptism in order to avoid a mistaken understanding. The necessity of sacramental Baptism is a necessity of the second order compared to the absolute necessity of God’s saving act through Jesus Christ for the final salvation of every human being. Sacramental Baptism is necessary because it is the ordinary means through which a person shares the beneficial effects of Jesus’ death and resurrection. In what follows, we will be attentive to the way scriptural witnesses have been used in the tradition. Moreover, in dealing with theological principles (Chapter 2) and with our reasons for hope (Chapter 3), we will discuss in greater detail the biblical doctrines and texts involved.
Intellectual property - Wikipedia
1) - the faculty of knowing for the sake of knowing speculative science - sometimes just called "science"; the type of knowing characteristic of the speculative intellect; see speculative intellect and science subject - as in the phrase "in a subject." Things that are present "in a subject" could not exist apart from a subject, but they are related to it without necessity.