Referendums in Canada - Wikipedia

Referendum question : “Do you support the Act of the Declaration of the Independence of Ukraine?”
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Referendums in Canada National ..

The effect of this rhetorical technique helps in creating a stronger argument. As Lloyd Bitzernotes: "Because they are jointly produced by the audience, enthymemes intuitively unite speaker andaudience and provide the strongest possible proof. ... The audience itself helps construct theproof by which it is persuaded" (Bitzer, 1959, p. 409). Enthymemes were widely used in thereferendum advertising. One of the most prominent themes of the federal strategy was to use thefederal largesse in Quebec to make a strong pro-federalist argument. This line of argumentation wasan enthymatic and can be represented in the following manner with the major premise being statedand the minor premise left unstated: Major premise: The federal government provides valuableservices. Minor premise: Quebec separation will eliminate these services. Conclusion: Voting No inthe referendum will affect provision of valuable federal services.

12/11/2013 · Many lessons can be drawn from the Quebec referendum ..
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Aboriginal Peoples and the 1995 Quebec Referendum: …

Abstract: This paper examines the federal governmentadvertising strategy during the 1980 Quebec referendum. It is argued that during periods ofpolitical instability governments use persuasive advertising disguised as informationaladvertising.

An analysis of the 1980 Quebec Referendum may be found in Jon Pammett et al., ..
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Examination of memos, communications plans, and other recently de-classified documents makes itevident that the Canadian government sought not to provide "value free information" but rather astrong pro-federalist argument. The case was not made explicitly. We will examine the rhetoricalstrategies of the federal government's advertising plan and see that, at first glance, theadvertising took the shape of information. This was only an advertising technique and made thefederal government's less than obvious claims more persuasive. We will also see that the Quebecgovernment was a skilful advertiser and used the same advertising techniques as did its federalcounterpart. Finally, the case of the Quebec referendum will shed some much needed light on howgovernments advertise on contentious issues. One of the main criticisms of this kind of statecommunication has to do with charges of propaganda. Though the federal government was involved inarguments that were designed to make a pro-federalist case, it had an obligation to persuade theQuebec public on this issue.

20/05/1980 · The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in ..
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after two referendums in Quebec, ..

After the Conquest and during the 19th century, the French referred to themselves as "les Canadiens" and described the "others" as "les Anglais." The strong French-Canadian perception that the 1867 Act reflected a federation of nations was constantly refuted by a large component of English-speaking Canadians. This contributed to the emergence of a separatist movement and a "Québec only" identity. The Rebellions of 1870 and 1885, the hanging of , the illegal and unconstitutional abolition of the French language in in 1890, the crises in 1917 and 1942, the constant marginalization of the French language at the federal level until the ‒ these events contributed to a negative perception of the Canadian federation.

Quebec Referendum | HuffPost Canada

The Opposition's objections in Quebec were not about the increase in expenditure on advertising,but rather whether many of the ad campaigns "could be justified in terms of disseminatinguseful information to the public" (ibid., emphasis added). This suggests that thecriticism was not about scope of the campaign but rather the contentiousness of the message. Hadthe ads communicated "useful information," as suggested by the UN, we can imagine their criticismbeing quelled. The advertising campaign became the most visible symbol for the Opposition's disdainfor the government position in the referendum. It became a metonym for the policy. When theOpposition complained about the lack of useful information, they were actually objecting to thelack of balance in the ads or the fact that the ads had a strong implicit message in them which wasantithetical to their position in the referendum.

Government Advertising in a Crisis: The Quebec Referendum Precedent

The skilful manipulation of symbols may help to make a powerful argument less contentious. Forthe federal government, the importance of making a strong link between slogans (the signifier) andthe argument (signified) was an important consideration. David Cameron called slogans used by theP.Q. as the "PQ's warm fuzzies" (Cameron, 1980 p. 1. Subsequent quotations in this paragraph arefrom this source). Semioticians might more accurately say they are the signifiers for which thesignified was unclear. These word-signs were the popular phrases of this era used to describeQuebec after the referendum: nouvelle entente, sovereignty association, and D'égal àégal. On the eve of the referendum Cameron argued that the federal government needed to moreclearly establish "unpleasant correlates" of these signs. Both the federalist argument and theperceived ramifications of the sovereigntist case needed to be made clear. Cameron suggested it becommunicated that sovereignty association would "increase taxes ... unemployment ... and the costof living by x%," that it would "throw away Quebec's right to Canada's resources." He even musedabout using such vivid slogans as "The P.Q. wants a mandate to take Quebec down a dead-end road"and "The PQ's `nouvelle entente' means that every 8th (or 10th or whatever) Quebecker would agreeto being thrown out of work. Which would it be--you or your neighbour?"