Herzberg - Motivation-Hygiene Theory

If Theory Y holds, the firm can do many things to harness the motivational energy of its employees:
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Protection motivation theory - Wikipedia

This is a subtle point. In effect, both teachers and students are deceiving themselves. They believe that it is the subject matter itself, the study of grammar, that is responsible for the students" progress, but in reality their progress is coming from the medium and not the message. Any subject matter that held their interest would do just as well.

Performance Appraisals - Having the employee set objectives and participate in the process of evaluating how well they were met.
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What is achievement motivation theory

In his 1960 book, , Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. Both of these theories begin with the premise that management's role is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm. Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge.

Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. Motivation and Motivation Theory: Mar-No
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Thus, Vroom's expectancy theory of motivation is not about self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes.

Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates
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Time Management: The Pickle Jar Theory · An A List …

Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom's expectancy theory separates effort (which arises from motivation), performance, and outcomes.

Emotion, Theories of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this.

Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition

McClelland's motivation theory argues that n-ach people with strong 'achievement motivation' make the best leaders, although there can be a tendency to demand too much of their staff in the belief that they are all similarly and highly achievement-focused and results driven, which of course most people are not.


Mcclelland's achievement motivation theory suggests that a strong n-affil 'affiliation-motivation' undermines a manager's objectivity, because of their need to be liked, and that this affects a manager's decision-making capability. A strong n-pow 'authority-motivation' will produce a determined work ethic and commitment to the organisation, and while n-pow people are attracted to the leadership role, they may not possess the required flexibility and people-centred skills.

Among the many branches of economics two of the best known areas are the study of Macroeconomics and Microeconomics. The two concepts …

McClelland's acquired needs theory states that most people possess and exhibit a combination of these characteristics. Some people exhibit a strong bias to a particular motivational need, and this motivational or needs 'mix' consequently affects their behaviour and working/managing style.