Lance Armstrong's doping drugs - CNN

Studies have shown that blood doping can improve the performance of endurance athletes.
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Blood - Natural Doping! - Breatheology

Artificial Oxygen carriers are the only form of blood doping which have a medical use. They were developed for use in emergencies when there is no time for determining and cross-matching a patients blood-type for transfusion, when there is a high risk of infection, or simply when no blood is available.

The following are side-effects which can occur in any form of blood doping:
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Blood Doping | Definition of Blood Doping by Merriam-Webster

It is also an anti-coagulant, meaning it will make the blood thinner, hence its adoption as a strategy to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis when flying on long haul flights.

In the modern era blood doping has largely been replaced by the use of the drug Erythropoietin (EPO).
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After the development of EPO, the use of blood doping fell considerably, however since the development of a test for EPO detection and the lack of testing for autologous doping, it is again on the rise.

This practice would increase red blood cell count allowing blood doping to improve performance in sports requiring high levels of aerobic activity.
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What is blood doping? | Yahoo Answers

A second method of blood doping involves the use of artificial oxygen carriers. Hemoglobin oxygen carriers (HBOC's) and Perfluorocarbons (PFC's) are chemicals or purified proteins which have the ability to carry oxygen. They have been developed for therapeutic use, however are now being misused as performance enhancer's.

The Use of Blood Doping as an Ergogenic Aid - Medscape

Blood doping is defined by WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) as the misuse of techniques and/or substances to increases ones red blood cell count. Most commonly this involves the removal of two units (approximately 2 pints!) of the athletes blood several weeks prior to competition.

What is Blood Doping? (with pictures) - wiseGEEK

Blood doping is most commonly used by endurance athletes, such as distance runners, skiers and cyclists. By increasing the number of red blood cells within the blood (and so increasing the haematocrit), higher volumes of the protein haemoglobin are present. Haemoglobin binds to and carries Oxygen from the lungs, to the muscles where it can be used for aerobic respiration. Blood doping therefore allows extra Oxygen to be transported to the working muscles, resulting in a higher level of performance, without the use of the anaerobic energy systems.

His cheating process, however, was not always neat and tidy

Sure enough, the salidroside spurred the cells to produce EPO. Apparently, the substance kicks up the production of a protein named HIF-1-alpha, which is produced when cells are short on oxygen. HIF-1-alpha, in turn, boosts the production of EPO.

Doping at the Tour de France - Wikipedia

I don't need doping to win races, I need hill climbs.'" Whether Pantani, whose trademark is breaking away from the pack on a hill, is telling the truth or not, it's true that detecting EPO is tricky, since training at high altitude also increases the number of red blood cells.